Appetite Suppressants for Obesity Treatment

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Appetite regulation can be mediated by a number of factors. Among the many factors a research review notes that hormones, neuropeptides, monoamine transmitters, serotonin, dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) to be important mediators (Rothman & Baumann, 2000). Of these factors, transmitter molecules that act in the brain are the most implicated factors that explain the mechanism through which phentermine leads to appetite suppression.

How Phentermine Generates Appetite Suppressing Effect


With its chemical and structural association to amphetamines, a group of compounds with psychomotor stimulant activity, phentermine (PHE) also works through CNS-stimulant activity. According to the research review, PHE is inhibits NE (re-) uptake while promoting its release. Further, PHE promotes secretion of neuronal (nerve cells) DA and serotonin (5-HT). The availability of these transmitter substances and especially serotonin, a biogenic amine, in the brain controls effects such as satiety, consciousness and stress relief.

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Drugs, however, do not mediate the release of these substances directly but rather through their interaction with receptors. By the presence of appropriate ligand binding sites, receptors provide areas onto which biochemical agents such as drugs attach. The products of drug biotransformation (metabolites) bind to their corresponding receptor site resulting into changes in the receptor-protein conformation. Being members of cellular membranes such as those that enclose transmitters, the conformational changes can either block the channels of transmission (inhibit uptake from synapses) or open these channels (ensure release into synapses) thus availing the neurotransmitter substance required to convey hormonal regulation signals in the synapses.

Other Weight-Reducing Drugs and Side Effects of Phentermine


Some treatment alternatives to phentermine that work in a similar fashion are a combination of phentermine and fenfluramine [FEN] (Phen-Fen) and sibutramine. Other drugs in this group that were once used for obesity treatment such as pure FEN and its more potent structural analogue (d)-fenfluramine (dFEN) are no longer used in humans due to their adverse effects. Drugs such as orlistat (trade name) that work by inhibiting enzymes involved in fat digestion hence blocking food absorption are also possible therapies for overweight.

Some of the adverse effects of phentermine use are directly associated to its working mechanism. A study comparing efficacy of PHE and Phen-Fen for instance noted adverse effects such as dry mouth, insomnia, and constipation in some of the participants (Li, et al. 2003). The increased risk of more serious adverse effects such as primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) with use of these drugs, as advanced in the research review, however necessitates the development of better therapies for treating obesity.

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Decide Today to Take Off Weight – Commitment

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Sick of being overweight? Finally decided to take the plunge and lose the weight? That is actually one of the first and most critical requirements in the long road to permanent weight loss. Maybe knee joints or a chronically painful back is the motivation to finally take that excess weight off for good.

Whatever the motivation, the decision to take hold of one's current and future health by shedding pounds is a great endeavor. When first starting out, remember that it will seem like the odds of success are too great. That is completely normal to feel that way. However, if significant and permanent weight loss is to be achieved, a few things must be realized first.

The Right Time to Lose Weight

As with most journeys, a map is essential in determining which way to go, for measuring progress, and for knowing when to make necessary course corrections along the way. Sit down with a pad and pencil and decide the start date for this journey. Now, list out all of the changes that will need to be made before starting down this path.

For example, what food items will no longer be allowed in the house, when will meals be planned out each week, and what diet or exercise program will be utilized? Next, think long and hard about how these changes will be implemented and what effect they will have on everyday life. Finally, commit to the plan with no reservation, total commitment. With this commitment, half the battle is already won.

Past Failures Are Biggest Enemy of Weight Loss

Most folks have had successes and failures throughout life, that's just what life is all about. The key to success and failure is understanding how these affect attitude, outlook, and state of mind. Success is easily understood as having a positive effect on one's attitude. Failure is a different story as most folks tend to think negatively about failure.

The key to understand failure is to understand that failure is a teacher. A really cruel, hard, unreasonable teacher, but a teacher nonetheless. Without failure, success would not seem so sweet. In regards to weight loss, past failures at losing weight must be viewed as motivation to ultimate success. Think of the feelings associated with past weight loss failures and use those negative feelings as motivation to stay on the path toward success.

Get Married to a Weight Loss Plan

Just as folks do not want to marry someone they don't particularly care for, so it is with weight loss plans. Not every weight loss plan is right for every person. The last thing anyone wants, whether considering marriage or weight loss plans, is to get stuck with one they don't like. Look around and see what's available out there, date around until the right weight loss plan can be determined.

Just like relationships with people, there may be some relationships with weight loss plans that just aren't going to work out. The only way to find out which one is best for a particular individual is to try some out. There's joining a weight loss support group, special prepared food eating plans, and even surgical options. Some will be dead ends, and one or two will eventually work. Think of these dead ends as necessary stages on the road to successful weight loss.

Success Begins With a Decision

Once the decision to begin is made, and a commitment is made, where does one go from there? It's simply a matter of working out a detailed plan, deciding on a moment-by-moment basis to stick with that plan, and enjoying the benefits of healthy and permanent weight loss.

Think of how good it will feel to look in a mirror and notice the first signs of weight loss such as a less protruding tummy, a pair of jeans that fit just a bit looser, or a comment from a perceptive friend. Think of the health problems associated with being overweight that will no longer be a threat to long-term health and wellness. It's time to make the decision today and begin down that road to successful, long-term weight loss.

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Atkins Diet: High Protein Low Carb Way of Eating

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The theory behind the diet is that restricting carbohydrates forces the body to burn fat for fuel, a process known as ketogenesis. Atkins allows unlimited quantities of meats and fats such as butter, but limits carbohydrates.

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Atkins Basics of High Protein, Low Carb, Moderate Fat : Which Low Carb Foods Are Allowed

The basic premise of Atkins is that eating carbohydrates, especially refined carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars and starches, makes you fat. Atkins doesn’t restrict the use of fat, but without starches such as pasta and bread, there are not too many ways to take a large amount of fat.

The Atkins diet starts out with induction, or phase 1, a phase where carbohydrates (often abbreviated as "carbs") are restricted to 20 grams a day. This phase lasts two weeks. Phase 2 adds five more carbs a day. The Atkins diet has varied over the years, and today’s phase 2 may be tomorrow’s induction phase.

The important thing to remember when eating the Atkins way is that carbohydrates are severely restricted. Low carbohydrate vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, cauliflower and green beans are allowed: fruits generally are not. No rice, pasta, potatoes, bread, muffins, donuts, cakes or any other refined sugar is allowed.

Even a small “cheat” on Atkins breaks the fat burning ketosis mode. Calories are not counted, and although they probably do count, they don’t keep people from losing weight. They may decrease the amount of weight lost somewhat.

Atkins Controversy: Is Atkins a Fad Diet? The High Protein Low Carbohydate Debate Rages On

Any diet that has significant restrictions can be hard to live with. Science has yet to conclusively prove either side of the “Which makes you fat: fat versus carbohydrate” debate, and it’s possible that different body types may respond differently to the diet.

The Atkins diet has been around for over 30 years; it definitely isn’t a fad diet. Many other diets have been designed around the same premise, although many have fewer carbohydrate restrictions.

Many doctors claim the diet increases the chance of kidney problems and heart disease, but many other are confident that Atkins reduces the risk of heart disease by lowering cholesterol and decreases high blood sugars. Baylor College of Medicine states that low carb diets work better for weight loss and blood pressure control than taking the weight loss medication orlistat with a low fat diet.

Trying the Atkins Diet for a Short Time; Stocking Up on Low Carb Foods

Many people try a diet for a short time to see if it works for them. Give Atkins at least a week; the first few days of getting the body into ketosis and passing up carbs can be difficult. Some people feel nauseated and lethargic for the first few days, but energy levels pick up as fat starts to be burned.

It's essential to have Atkins allowed foods at home before starting the diet. Staying full helps ward off carb cravings. Use oils liberally; they're allowed, and they give a feeling a fullness. According to the Mayo Clinic, people on low carb diets are less hungry than those on a calorie restricted diet.

Atkins also makes a line of snack foods that have low carbohydrates. no, they're not quite as good as a candy bar, but they do meet the need for something "snacky."

Before or while trying Atkins, check out a low carb forum such as Active Low Carber Forum that gives practical advice and encouragement as well as lots of recipes that make it easier to stay on Atkins.

The Bottom (Reducing) Line: Atkins and Low Carb Eating Works for Many People

Atkins isn’t for everyone; it helps to be a big meat and vegetable eater. Some people just don’t feel well eating a lot of fat, and vegetarians probably won’t be able to eat enough protein to do this diet. For many people, however, the Atkins diet works to take weight off quickly.

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Decide Today to Take Off Weight – Right Plan

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When considering weight loss for the long–term, it's good to know that there are more than just one path to successful weight loss. Just because a particular weight loss plan has produced great results for one person, is no indication that it will get great results for another. Weight loss is as simple as finding the right plan that will produce the desired results.

Finding the right plan may require more than just taking someone's word for particular results. Finding the right weight loss method may take some research and some time due to the vast amount of methods, programs, and plans available. The best plans that will produce the best results depend upon the individual needs of folks wanting to lose weight.

The Right Plan to Lose Weight

First, there is no one right plan to lose weight. There are never a shortage of advertisements touting that their particular plan is the best and will produce optimal results for anyone and everyone. That's just silly. The right weight loss plan for one person may not be the right weight loss plan for a different person simply because their metabolism may be different or their outlook on food may be world's apart.

No two people have the same taste in food, and so no two people can expect the same results from a single diet plan. What's more important than a particular plan is finding a particular plan that can be adhered to successfully. What's important is the ability to stick with a certain eating and exercise plan rather than the actual sort of diet.

Commitment to Weight Loss More Important Than Diet

So if commitment to a weight loss plan is more important than the actual weight loss plan, then the focus should be on doing whatever it takes to remain on course, and stick to whichever plan is selected. Most of the good diet plans have some characteristics in common like keeping a daily food journal along with calorie–counting.

Other common features of the most effective weight loss plans include adherence to a strict diet or eating plan, one hour of cardio and strength training exercises per day, and drinking lots of water. Other common factors for a successful weight loss plan are a positive and enthusiastic attitude toward exercise and changing the way a person looks at and uses food every day.

Long–Term Motivation to Lose Weight

The success of any weight loss or diet plan is being able to rise to and maintain sufficient motivation over the long–term. When first starting out, one may be rewarded with frequent encouraging signals like daily weight loss and a continual downward turn on the scale. Other positive rewards are clothes that fit more loosely, or having weight loss noticed by others.

Eventually, as the weight loss plan moves on, these rewards get fewer and farther between. Some folks may go a whole week without ant noticeable weight loss on the scale or in the fit of clothing. These times can be very discouraging for most folks. But this is not the time to give up. This is the time to become stronger.

Weight Loss From Deep Within

That's right, when the going gets tough, the tough put on their big–boy or big–girl pants and face the challenges head on. There's only one place that the strength to stick to a weight loss plan can come from when all else fails. That superhuman strength, motivation, and willingness to keep going has to come from deep within a person.

What helps most folks is making a list of the reasons they began this journey in the first place. This list helps them remember the reasons for losing weight like better health, less painful knees, the desire to remain with loved ones longer, or a reversal of diabetes. These are powerful motivators and can help to keep a weight loss plan on course. Always remember why this journey was begun and do whatever it takes to remain on course toward a healthier, happier, and thinner future.

As with any radical changes in diet or exercise, it may be beneficial to consult a health care professional, nutritionist, or doctor before starting any diet, exercise, or weight loss plan. This article is for informational purposes only. The information provided herein is of a general nature and should not be substituted as advice from a qualified professional.

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Childhood Obesity Treatment

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childhood obesity treatment

Prevention is paramount, but children who have reached the overweight and or obese range need a very special kind of treatment plan and much understanding from those who will guide them back to health. Treatment plans should always be created in unison with a trusted family physician, taking into account any complications or special dietary needs that might need to be considered. When creating a plan that works there are several considerations that should be taken into account.

Childhood Obesity does not Begin or End with the Child

A child is often a reflection, mirroring the input received from his/her surroundings. Children will most often develop habits and routines guided by well meaning loved ones and community members. Caregivers may want to look at all aspects of the environment surrounding a child in question, pondering the projections provided. Aspects considered should not only be nutritional, but also emotional and physical. A study published in BMC Pediatrics focused on social risks presented to children including poverty, single parent families, lack of parental education and others. The study indicated that as social risks for children increased so did the odds of poor health for the child.(1) This tell us that the issue may be presented in a child, but in reality it is usually the entire family and surrounding environment that needs to consider changes.

A Gentle Approach is Best

Parents and caregivers would do best to help an overweight child achieve goals through an extremely gentle approach that will enable the young one to keep his/her self esteem intact. A study published in July, 2009 used a questionnaire for more than 22,000 Hong Kong students aged 11-18 and revealed that one in three of the children had received comments on their weight, of which the mother was the most common source. The study further found that fewer than half of the comments received were correct and that the incorrect comments were associated with weight misperception amongst the children.(2) Given this insight, an overweight child has most likely received comments regarding his weight at some point, affecting the perception of his/her body, not necessarily in a positive way. Children should not be made to feel that something is “wrong” with them, but simply that old habits need to give way to new ones in order to create a healthier lifestyle.

Family and Community Involvement

Considering the immense impact that childhood obesity is having on our nation, it is important for everyone to get involved. After all, children whose family and community are involved in their efforts will be more likely to succeed. Also it is important to remember that children pattern their lives after those around them. If a child sees those close to him eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, he/she will see the value in those actions and want to repeat them. Schools can help by providing children only healthy options for mealtimes and banning junk food and soda dispensers from their premises. People might look at an overweight child and wonder how the parents could have let it happen, when what they should be thinking is how have we, as a community and nation, let it happen.

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Changing Medications - Best Weight Loss Tip

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Do medicines make people fat? Physicians may not inform patients about potential side effects, such as increased appetite, during office visits. If patients don’t ask, doctors may not take the time. They may not know, or they may worry that patients will not be compliant with a medication that might affect their weight. Drug companies that hold short clinical trials to get drugs approved might overlook weight gain as a side effect that doesn’t have time to show up in such studies.

Some Medications for Diabetes Can Add to Existing Problems

J. Mitri of Boston University Medical School wrote in an article published in the 2009 Expert Opinion in Drug Safety of concern that resulting weight gain diminishes the benefits of some medications for type II diabetics.

Thiazolidinodions, such as Avandia, Actos, and Avandamet, may further raise the risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetics by encouraging the proliferation of fat cells.

Diabetics who need to take insulin often put on pounds. This is due in part to insulin’s ability to help the body use sugar so that excess dietary carbohydrates can be stored in fat cells. But weight gain from insulin use may also result from rapid drops in blood sugar and high insulin levels, which have the effect of stimulating hunger.

Weight Gain Raises Blood Pressure, But Some Meds Contribute to Weight Gain

Thiazides, such as Diuril, and loop diuretics, such as Lasix, can raise blood sugar. Centrally acting agents such as Catapress and alpha adrenergic blockers, such as Cardura, may increase appetite. Flomax, used to treat enlarged prostate, is also an alpha adrenergic blocker. Beta blockers, such as Tenormin, Lopressor, or Inderal, have indirect effects on weight management. These medications change the way the heart responds to exercise, so fewer calories are burned during activity. All antihypertensive medications are associated with fatigue and depressed mood, curtailing motivation to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

Weight Gain is a Common Side Effect of Psychiatric Medications

Antidepressants that work by altering neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, may stimulate appetite. Popular SSRIs like Zoloft, Prozac, Paxil, and Lexapro have this effect for some patients, particularly if taken for longer than six months. Older tricyclics like Elavil and Tofranil, and the seldom used MAO inhibitors such as Parnate and Nardil can also lead to weight gain even with short term use. Caution: do not stop taking antidepressants or other mental health medications abruptly, and do not change dosages without consulting a physician. Potential benefits of medicines must be weighed against potential risks.

Lithium, used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, is known to have an insulin-like effect. According to a study by Duke University researchers, which was published in the December 2005 issue of Schizophrenic Research, neuroleptic drugs used to treat psychosis are a major factor in obesity among patients who may need these medications. The development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be the result of drug-induced weight gain among those with mental illnesses, accounting at least in part for this population’s shorter average lifespan.

Corticosteroid Medications Influence Glucose Uptake

A variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, asthma, and dermatitis may be treated with corticosteroids. As synthetic forms of the hormone cortisol, these drugs suppress the immune system and are used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. Scientists at John Hopkins Weight Management Center believe these medications increase body fat, decrease muscle mass, and lower metabolic rate In addition to stimulating appetite.

Over-the-Counter Drugs Can Derail Your Diet

Histamine plays an important role in the regulation of appetite and metabolism, according to researchers at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.

Antihistamines, like Benadryl, that block H1 or activate H3 receptors may lead to weight gain by thwarting the appetite suppressant effects of histamine.

Seasickness remedies, such as Dramamine, and some acid-reducer medicines such as Zantac and Tagamet are included in this family of drugs and share the same side effects.

Commonly used medications are contributing to the obesity epidemic in the United States. The side effects of drugs for some conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis, allergies, and depression can make it harder to stick to a diet and exercise plan. Putting on pounds in turn can increase the risk of developing worse health problems.

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Change Your Actions to Lose More Weight

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Evaluate Your Weight Loss Strategy

Evaluating your current behavior is a good starting point to figure out why you have stopped losing weight. Since many experts agree that healthy weight loss is best achieved through a combination of diet and exercise, you should review both your eating habits and your physical activity. Make sure that you keep logs for both food and exercise to make it easier to monitor your progress. There may just be a minor adjustment to be made to get you back on track and help you lose more weight.

Review Your Eating Habits

Eating balanced meals, choosing healthy snacks and drinking water are all typical parts of weight loss, but you should also be aware of how many calories you are consuming. As your weight changes, your calorie requirements will likely change also; so don’t forget to take that factor into consideration. You may need to consume fewer calories throughout the day but be careful not to restrict your calories too much. Watch your portion sizes and be aware of the calories that you consume in your beverages because they can easily add up fast.

Fine-tune Your Workout Using the F.I.T.T. Principle

If you have been doing the same workout for a while, then you may need to switch things up a little to continue to make progress. Making small changes in the frequency, intensity, time or type (F.I.T.T. Principle) of exercise might be the key to help you break through your weight loss plateau. Making adjustments to your workout may also help to keep you interested and enthusiastic about exercise.
  • How frequently do you exercise?(Frequency) – If you usually exercise three days per week, then maybe adding an extra day per week may help get those unwanted pounds off. However, make sure to give your muscles enough time to rest and recover in between workouts.
  • How intense is your workout?(Intensity)– Making the exercises more difficult can also be beneficial in helping you to get more out of your workout. Try increasing the amount of resistance during your strength training or shorten the rest period between sets to add intensity. Circuit or interval training may be another option to help make your workouts more challenging and help you lose those remaining pounds.
  • How long is your workout?(Time) – Increasing the length of time you exercise may also help you get back on track with your weight loss efforts. Gradually adding more time to each workout might help you burn the extra calories needed for your weight loss to resume.
  • What type of exercises are you doing?(Type) – If you have been using a treadmill, then maybe switching to an elliptical machine or jump rope may benefit you. If you have been using only free weights for your resistance training, then adding body weight exercises to your workout may help improve your results. Playing sports for recreation might be another possibility to shake things up a little.

Make Your Lifestyle Healthier

Keep your focus on improving your health as well as achieving your weight loss goals.Try to make gradual improvements in your healthy lifestyle on a consistent basis and don’t let minor setbacks get you down. Some research has shown that even losing a small amount of weight can have a big impact on improving your health.

Remember, the number on the scale is not the only measure you should be concerned with. Pay attention to how you feel, how your clothes fit, your body measurements and body fat percentage to provide additional indications of fat loss and improved health.

Take pride in the success that you have achieved so far. With patience and an honest effort, you can continue on the path to accomplishing your goals. As always, please consult your physician before making any changes to your diet or beginning an exercise program.

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Delicious Raw Superfoods to Lose Weight

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The raw food diet has become renowned for dramatic weight loss and increased health; whole, uncooked, and organic foods clearly retain more vitality and nutritional value than their processed counterparts. Recently, raw vegan “superfoods” have come into vogue – foods that purportedly have the potential to promote weight loss and overall well-being. Fortunately, these foods are both delicious and accessible.

Raw Vegan Chocolate in a Whole Foods Diet

Not all chocolate is as sugar-spiked and processed as what's available at the supermarket checkout; raw chocolate beans have been attributed to retain some fantastic benefits for mental well-being and weight loss. Raw chocolate is high in magnesium, a mineral in which 60-80% of American may be deficient; magnesium supports mood through its tryptophan content (which is converted to serotonin), as well as alertness.

Chocolate's mood-boosting properties, as well as its high nutrition content, may help curb food cravings faster, and raw chocolate has none of the sugar or caffeine of the processed kind. Raw chocolate is also extremely high in antioxidants, making it a wonderful anti-aging agent.

Raw Honey and Bee Pollen for Weight Loss

Bee pollen may be one of the best foods to eat not only for weight loss, but for overall health. Bee pollen contains every nutrient the body needs – 96 of them! – as well as a high protein content. Its benefits include relieving PMS, enhancing the immune system, detoxifying the body, alleviating allergies, and aiding strength and endurance. Bee pollen also supports weight loss through increasing fat burning.

Honey is a favorite food of raw vegan guru Angela Stokes; raw honey is rich in enzymes and phytonutrients, and has antibacterial properties. While in general it's best to reduce intake of simple carbohydrates (such as white sugar and honey) for weight loss, raw honey's nutritional bright spots may make it an excellent substitute for refined sugars.

Weight Loss with Raw Wheat Grass Juice

Grasses are not only superabundant; they're fantastically healthful and promote satiety, which is tantamount to guaranteed weight loss. Raw wheat grass is a complete protein and features around 30 enzymes as well as numerous minerals, including magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, zinc, and iron.

Wheat grass also functions as a body detoxing agent, reduces body odors, and improves skin condition. Watch a video or two on wheat grass juicing and start using any of 400 varieties to begin weight loss with raw foods.

More Best Foods to Eat to Lose Weight

Outside the raw vegan subculture, there are a variety of foods proven to increase metabolism and burn fat; for more, see The Best Fat-Burning Foods to Lose Weight.

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